Ocular manifestations of dengue fever

TitleOcular manifestations of dengue fever
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2004
AuthorsLim WK, Mathur R, Koh A, Yeoh R, Chee SP
Pagination2057 - 64
Date PublishedNov
ISSN1549-4713 (Electronic) 0161-6420 (Linking)
Accession Number15522372
KeywordsAdult, Antibodies, Viral / blood, Choroid Diseases / *diagnosis / virology, Dengue / *diagnosis / virology, Dengue Virus / immunology, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Eye Infections, Viral / *diagnosis / virology, Female, Fluorescein Angiography, Humans, Immunoglobulin M / analysis, Indocyanine Green / diagnostic use, Male, Middle Aged, Retinal Diseases / *diagnosis / virology, Retrospective Studies, Vision Disorders / *diagnosis / virology

PURPOSE: To evaluate ocular manifestations associated with dengue fever. DESIGN: Retrospective case series and literature review. METHODS: Clinical records of patients with dengue fever who subsequently had ocular symptoms and signs develop were reviewed. The clinical presentation and ocular complications were evaluated. RESULTS: Six patients, 5 females and 1 male, were seen with a sudden decrease in vision 6 to 7 days after the initial manifestations of dengue fever were identified. The diagnosis was confirmed by detection of dengue-specific IgM antibodies (IgM enzyme-linked immunoassay). The presenting best-corrected visual acuity ranged from 20/30 to counting fingers, and ocular involvement was bilateral but asymmetric in 5 cases and unilateral in 1 case. Fundus findings included small, intraretinal, whitish lesions, with localized retinal and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) disturbance, small dot hemorrhages, and vascular sheathing around the macula and the papillomacular bundle. Fluorescein angiography showed arteriolar focal knobby hyperfluorescence at the macula with mild staining of the vascular walls and leakage at the level of the RPE. All 5 cases that had indocyanine green angiography done showed early diffuse choroidal hyperfluorescence with late silhouetting of the larger choroidal vessels. Five patients received steroid therapy: 1 topical, 2 periocular, and 2 oral. Over 2 to 4 months, RPE discoloration was observed over the affected areas. After the acute episode, 3 patients showed partial recovery of vision, and in the remaining patients, the visual acuity remained stable. CONCLUSIONS: Ocular complications associated with dengue fever are rare but may result in permanent visual impairment.

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