|Significant closure of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and hepatitis C virus preseroconversion detection windows with a transcription-mediated-amplification-driven assay.
|Year of Publication
|Kolk DP, Dockter J, Linnen J, Ho-Sing-Loy M, Gillotte-Taylor K, McDonough SH, Mimms L, Giachetti C
|J Clin Microbiol
|1761 - 6
|Blood Transfusion, Hepacivirus, Hepatitis C, HIV Seropositivity, HIV-1, Humans, Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques, Reproducibility of Results, Sensitivity and Specificity, Time Factors
While the present generation of serology-based assays has significantly decreased the number of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections acquired by transfusion, the possibility of infected donations escaping detection still exists. The average seronegative viremic window duration during which immunological assays are unable to detect the virus is estimated to be between 16 and 22 days for HIV-1 and approximately 70 days for HCV. Significant reduction of detection window duration was demonstrated using a nucleic acid amplification assay, the Procleix HIV-1/HCV Assay, which utilizes transcription-mediated amplification technology to simultaneously detect HIV-1 and HCV RNAs. For 26 commercially available HIV-1 seroconversion panels tested, specimens were reactive in the HIV-1/HCV assay at the same time as or earlier than in serological assays. Overall, the HIV-1/HCV assay was able to reduce the detection window duration by an average of 14 days and 6 days compared to tests relying on recognition of HIV-1 antibody and p24 antigen, respectively. For 24 commercially available HCV seroconversion panels tested, the specimens were reactive in the HIV-1/HCV assay at an earlier blood sampling date than in serological assays, reducing the detection window duration by an average of 26 days. Similar results were obtained in testing the HIV-1 and HCV seroconversion panels in the virus-specific HIV-1- and HCV-discriminatory assays, respectively. In conclusion, the HIV-1/HCV assay and corresponding discriminatory assays significantly reduced detection window durations compared to immunoassays.
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