Passenger lymphocyte syndrome in liver transplant recipients: a description of 12 cases.

TitlePassenger lymphocyte syndrome in liver transplant recipients: a description of 12 cases.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsRomero S, Solves P, Lancharro A, Cano I, Moscardo F, Carpio N, Sanz MA
JournalBlood transfusion = Trasfusione del sangue//Blood Transfus.
Pagination423 - 8
Date Published2015
ISBN Number1723-2007
Other Numbers101237479
Keywords*ABO Blood-Group System/bl [Blood], *Adrenal Cortex Hormones/ad [Administration & Dosage], *Blood Group Incompatibility/dt [Drug Therapy], *Hemolysis, *Liver Transplantation/ae [Adverse Effects], Adult, Female, Humans, Immunosuppression/mt [Methods], Male, Middle Aged, Rh-Hr Blood-Group System/bl [Blood], Syndrome

BACKGROUND: Passenger lymphocyte syndrome is an important cause of immune haemolysis after solid organ transplantation. It mainly occurs in minor ABO and Rh mismatched transplants. The haemolysis is usually mild and self-limited. We present our experience in passenger lymphocyte syndrome and liver transplantation and review the literature., MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed liver transplants performed in our centre from January 2002 to September 2013, searching for ABO or Rh incompatibility and serological findings of haemolysis. A direct antiglobulin test was systematically performed in each pre-transfusion assessment., RESULTS: A total of 1,217 liver transplants were performed and 12 passenger lymphocyte syndromes were detected: of the 56 cases with minor ABO incompatibility, ten patients developed passenger lymphocyte syndrome (17.9%) and of 147 cases with minor Rh incompatibility, two patients developed the syndrome (1.40%). All patients with passenger lymphocyte syndrome had haemolysis, a decrease of haemoglobin (median 6.8 g/dL) and an increase of bilirubin (median 5.15 mg/dL). The treatment of passenger lymphocyte syndrome consisted of increasing the dose of corticosteroids that the patients were receiving as post-transplantation immunosuppressive therapy and, in the majority of cases, transfusion of donor compatible red blood cells., DISCUSSION: Passenger lymphocyte syndrome in liver transplantation has significant clinical consequences. It is, therefore, important to make the diagnosis rapidly, performing pre-transfusion direct antiglobulin tests, and manage the problem correctly with donor compatible red blood cell transfusions and/or immunosuppressive treatment.

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