Recurrent transfusion-related acute lung injury.

TitleRecurrent transfusion-related acute lung injury.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2001
AuthorsWin N, Montgomery J, Sage D, Street M, Duncan J, Lucas G
Pagination1421 - 5
Date Published2001
ISBN Number0041-1132
Other Numberswdn, 0417360
Keywords*Blood Transfusion/ae [Adverse Effects], *Lung Diseases/et [Etiology], Acute Disease, Adult, Antibodies/an [Analysis], Antibodies/im [Immunology], Antibody Specificity, Blood Donors, Blood Grouping and Crossmatching, Female, Granulocytes/im [Immunology], HLA-A2 Antigen/im [Immunology], Humans, Immunoglobulin M/an [Analysis], Immunoglobulin M/im [Immunology], Lung Diseases/im [Immunology], Lung Diseases/ra [Radiography], Lung Diseases/th [Therapy], Lymphocytes/im [Immunology], Radiography, Thoracic, Recurrence, Respiration, Artificial

BACKGROUND: Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a rare condition that is commonly associated with the transfusion of donor plasma containing WBC antibodies. Biologically active lipids that accumulate during storage of RBCs and platelets may also cause TRALI. There has been only one previously reported case of recurrent TRALI., CASE REPORT: A patient received a transfusion 2 days after undergoing hysterectomy; she developed TRALI after receiving the transfusion. The patient recovered after being on ventilation for 6 days but received an additional transfusion and had a second episode of TRALI, which required further ventilation., RESULTS: Laboratory investigation of the first episode of TRALI suggested the presence of HLA-A2 (N = 1) and granulocyte-specific IgM antibodies (N = 2) in the sera from three of the donors. All three sera reacted in crossmatch studies with the patient's granulocytes and lymphocytes. Lymphocyte-specific IgG antibodies were detected in the patient's serum. There was no evidence to suggest the involvement of WBC antibodies in the second episode of TRALI. Antibody screening of the donors' samples and both forward and reverse crossmatch studies were negative., CONCLUSION: The first episode of TRALI seems to be due to the action of HLA-A2 and granulocyte-specific IgM antibodies. The second episode may have been due to the action of lipid neutrophil-priming agents in the donors' units in association with the patient's underlying pulmonary condition (i.e., recovering from lung injury). TRALI can recur if a patient requires further transfusion support shortly after an initial episode of TRALI.

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