Contamination of banked femoral head allograft: incidence, bacteriology and donor follow up

TitleContamination of banked femoral head allograft: incidence, bacteriology and donor follow up
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2000
AuthorsSommerville SM, Johnson N, Bryce SL, Journeaux SF, Morgan DA
JournalAust N Z J Surg
Pagination480 - 4
Date PublishedJul
ISSN0004-8682 (Print) 0004-8682 (Linking)
Accession Number10901573
Keywords*Bone Banks, Acetabulum / microbiology, Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Arthroplasty / adverse effects, Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip, Bacteria / *classification, Biopsy, Bone Diseases / microbiology, Bone Transplantation, Female, Femur Head / *microbiology, Follow-Up Studies, Humans, Incidence, Joint Capsule / microbiology, Living Donors, Male, Middle Aged, Prosthesis-Related Infections / etiology, Sepsis / classification, Staphylococcus epidermidis / classification, Sterilization, Surgical Wound Infection / etiology, Transplantation, Homologous, Treatment Outcome

BACKGROUND: Allograft donations are not uncommonly found to be contaminated. The issue of contaminated donations from live donors at the time of surgery, and the significance of this to the patient in terms of subsequent sepsis of the arthroplasty, were examined. METHODS: The donations of femoral heads to the Queensland Bone Bank over a 9-year period were reviewed, and the incidence and bacteriology of contamination were detailed. Clinical outcomes were determined for donors who had positive cultures at the time of retrieval and they were compared with those of culture-negative donors. RESULTS: Between March 1987 and February 1996, 232 femoral heads were donated to the Queensland Bone Bank. Four specimens were sent for culture with each femoral head (surface swab of femoral head, acetabular swab, bone biopsy and capsule). In 51 cases, one or more positive cultures were obtained (22% contamination rate). The majority of organisms cultured were Staphylococcus epidermidis. One hundred and seventy donations came from surgery performed at the Princess Alexandra Hospital, and 40 femoral heads were considered contaminated. Deep infection was recorded in one of the 40 cases with contaminated donations and three out of 130 non-contaminated donations had subsequent septic episodes. CONCLUSION: The contamination rate detailed in the present report is higher than in most series. This may be due to the fact that four bacteriological specimens are taken to assess contamination. Two of these specimens are tissue samples which yielded more positive results than did the two swabs. All other series take no more than two bacteriological specimens, which are usually bone swabs. These are shown to have a poor yield of positive cultures. Therefore there is a significant underestimation of contamination rates by other bone banks. This has implications for the recipients of bone from those banks, particularly when the allograft material is not secondarily sterilized. This is important given increasing allograft usage, and the increasing numbers of revision joint arthroplasty and impaction grafting procedures being performed. Sterilization of all bone by irradiation to 25 kGy is recommended.

Notify Library Reference ID1426

Related Incidents