Oral presentation of posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorders. An unusual manifestation

TitleOral presentation of posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorders. An unusual manifestation
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication1996
AuthorsOda D, Persson GR, Haigh WG, Sabath DE, Penn I, Aziz S
Pagination435 - 40
Date Published42036
Accession Number8610357
KeywordsAdult, Base Sequence, Cyclosporine / adverse effects, DNA Primers / genetics, DNA, Viral / genetics / isolation & purification, Gingival Hyperplasia / diagnosis / *etiology / *pathology, Heart Transplantation / *adverse effects, Herpesvirus 4, Human / genetics / isolation & purification, Humans, Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains / genetics, Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects, Lymphoproliferative Disorders / diagnosis / *etiology / *pathology, Male, Middle Aged, Molecular Sequence Data, Risk Factors

Cyclosporine, an immunosuppressive agent widely used in organ transplantation, has several undesirable side effects, including gingival hyperplasia, which occurs in up to 70% of patients. Another complication associated with use of cyclosporine and other immunosuppressants is an increased incidence of malignancies. Long-term use of cyclosporine also is associated with a spectrum of hyperproliferative disorders ranging from reactive lymphoid hyperplasia to aggressive malignant lymphomas. While cyclosporine-related lymphoproliferative disorders have been widely reported, they have not been described in the oral cavity as the first manifestation of this disease. We report on two cardiac transplantation patients with a history of cyclosporine use who presented initially with oral symptoms of lymphoproliferative disorder. Both had erythematous to cyanotic and hyperplastic gingiva. On gingivectomy, the fixed tissue was soft, glistening, and tan colored, in contrast to the usual firm, white, cyclosporine-associated, benign gingival fibrous hyperplasia. Histologically, a dense, diffuse infiltrate of lymphoplasmacytoid cells with vesicular nuclei, prominent nucleoli, a moderate amount of cytoplasm, and high mitotic activity was observed. Immunocytochemical studies confirmed that the cells were monoclonal for lambda light chains in one patient and kappa light chains in the other. The cells from one patient were positive for CD45, while both patients were negative for CD20 and all nonhematopoietic antigens tested. Both tissues were strongly positive for Epstein-Barr virus. Morphology and immunocytochemistry findings are consistent with a posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder. These are the first two reported cases of cyclosporine-associated posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders presenting as gingival hyperplasia.

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