Adverse Occurrence type:
Time to detection:
5 - 10 days
Alerting signals, symptoms, evidence of occurrence:
Asymptomatic (~80%) in the majority of immunocompetent individuals; West Nile fever, malaise, myalgia, lymphadenopathy, meningitis, encephalitis. Neuroinvasive disease (WNND) in 40-60% of immunocompromised hosts.
Demonstration of imputability or root cause:
WNV RNA by Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RTPCR) in serum, CSF and tissues, Serology CSF/serum IgM capture, IgG; Neutralising antibodies (reference method), virus isolation. Immunohistochemical staining of tissues. Donors had laboratory proven evidence of recently acquired WNV infection, and all 5 recipients became infected within weeks from transplantation. Most developed neurological symptoms.
West Nile virus transmission through organ transplantation in north-eastern Italy: a case report and implications for pre-procurement screening.